Charlton is located the north-west Victoria, 254 km north west of Melbourne. Prior to European settlement Jaara Aborigines are inhabited the area. The first European settlers were Robert Cay and William Kaye, who established the 'Charlton' station in 1848, who probably named it after the village Charlton Marshall in Greenwich, England. The run was divided into East Charlton and West Charlton, separated by the Avoca River. Each side was subject to different commissioners of crown lands. When a town developed on the eastern side of the river, adjacent a river crossing, it was known as East Charlton.

In 1863 an inn was erected, and four years later a bridge was built across the Avoca River, facilitating the spread of the settlement to both sides of the riverbank. Thus the title 'East Charlton' became redundant, but a name change to 'Charlton' was impossible until 1879 when another town named Charlton changed its name to Chute.

In the 1870s the large holdings were opened to selectors who established grain-growing. Two flour mills were consequently built in the 1870s. The Shire of Charlton was established on 28 May 1895. Two years later the Shire issued a medal in commemoration of the diamond jubilee of Queen Victoria (NU 20455). The medal named C.A. Foreman as Shire President and E.F. Gilchrist as Sire Secretary.

Buloke Shire Council was created by Order of the Governor in Council on January 20 1995 from the Shires of Charlton, Wycheproof, Birchip, Donald and part of the Shire of Kara Kara.

Charlton is today dominated by large grain silos that indicate the focus of local industry, although its feedlot is the largest beef lot producer in Victoria. Wool and fat lambs also contribute to the local economy.

'Walkabout Australia Travel Guide', Fairfax F2 website, accessed 25/11/2003.
Blake, L. (1977). Place Names of Victoria.

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