Copper One Penny Token, minted by an unknown British Mint. Issued by Clarkson & Turnbull, Timaru, New Zealand, 1865. The firm of Clarkson and Turnbull was founded in 1863 at Timaru. The Principals were David Clarkson and Richard Turnbull. Timaru was only declared a Port of Entry in 1861, so it was still quite a young settlement when Clarkson and Turnbull opened their store. Their premises were of particular note in the township, 'a two-storey building at the corner of George Street and the South Road, whose cost would be about 2,500 [pounds]; plate glass for the windows was being imported from England at a cost of about 150 [pounds].' The business was the first to export flour from Timaru 'which since then has been continuous.' The partnership was disrupted on 9 December 1868 by a fire that consumed their premises, among a total of 30 buildings destroyed. After their premises were destroyed Clarkson & Turnbull dissolved their partnership. David Clarkson returned to Christchurch and Robert Turnbull remained in Timaru, carrying on their business in his own name.

Physical Description

A round copper token (34 mm diameter). The piece features the name, address and business of the issuer: Clarkson & Turnbull, general importers, drapers clothiers &c., Timaru. The reverse features a view of the local breakwater and lighthouse with a two-funnelled three masted steam sailing ship docking and a crowd of 14 people waiting on the breakwater.

Obverse Description

Around a circle of beads, CLARKSON & TURNBULL 1865 within in five lines, GENERAL / IMPORTERS / DRAPERS / CLOTHIERS / &c

Reverse Description

View of the local breakwater and lighthouse with a two-funnelled three masted steam sailing ship docking and a crowd of 14 people waiting on the breakwater. Above, NEW ZEALAND, in exergue, TIMARU

Edge Description


More Information

  • Collection Names

    Alfred Chitty Collection

  • Collecting Areas

    Clothing & Textiles, Numismatics & Philately, Transport, Working Life & Trades

  • Acquisition Information

    Transfer from National Gallery of Victoria (NGV), Mr Alfred Chitty, 15 Mar 1976

  • Date Issued

    1865 AD

  • Issued By

    Clarkson & Turnbull, Timaru, Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand, 1865

  • Previous Collection

    Mr Alfred Chitty

  • Inscriptions


  • Denomination

    1 Penny

  • Series

    Trade Tokens

  • Material


  • Axis


  • Classification

    Trade tokens, New zealand, Working strikes

  • Category

    History & Technology

  • Discipline


  • Type of item


  • Dimensions

    34 mm (Outside Diameter), 14.137 g (Weight)

  • Shape


  • References

    Although only one reverse die was needed to manufacture this issue, three slightly different obverses were employed with it. Identification of the die combination used to manufacture a particular token is the basis of the standard references and the museum storage system. The three obverse dies can be recognised by: Obverse Rim border GENERAL verticle stroke of L of GENERAL A denticles 15.8 mm to vertical stroke of R B beads 15.9 mm to vertical stroke of R C beads 17.5 mm to middle of R The following die combinations have been recorded: A/1, B/1 (this token), C/1
    [Book] Andrews, Arthur. 1921. Australasian Tokens and Coins., No. 70
    [Book] Heyde, Gilbert C. & Skinner, Dion H. 1967. Unofficial Coins of Colonial Australia and New Zealand., No. 43/2
    [Book] Lampard, William H. 1981. Catalogue of New Zealand Coins Tokens Bank Notes., No. 312a
    [Book] Humberstone, Vaughn. 2010. Merchants Making Money.

  • Keywords

    Clothing Trade, Drapers, Import Trade, Lighthouses, Shipping