Copper One Penny Token minted by Thomas Stokes, Melbourne. Issued by J. Taylor, Bread & Biscuit Baker, Family Grocer, Ballarat, 1862. John Taylor was a baker in England, and arrived in Australia in 1852. He finally decided to settle in Ballarat, where he built a bakery and named it the 'Red House', developing a turnover of £20,000 a year. In 1863 he rebuilt his works and from that time on he placed the Governor's crest on his advertisements. His range of goods included biscuits, boiled sugars, and lozenges. In 1867 Taylor opened a second store, it was a Retail Confectionery Establishment, providing Fruit, Pastry, Confectionery, Biscuits and Wedding Cakes. Economic conditions in the mid 1870s led Taylor to close his shop and take up farming at Boort for seven years. He resumed his work in 1881, again establishing a very solid business. After his retirement he passed the business on to his son Robert, who was still managing it in 1910.

Physical Description

A round bronze token (34 mm diameter). The token features the name, address and business of the issuer: J. Taylor, Red House, corner of Danna and Raglan Streets, Ballarat, bread and biscuit baker, family grocer. The reverse features wheat sheaf, from a Stokes stock die - Sharples Sheaf 1 = Heyde Sheaf 1 = Andrews 21 - it is dated 1862, stock dies were shared by many issuing firms.

Obverse Description

At centre within a line circle, J.TAYLOR / RED HOUSE / CORNER OF / DANNA & RAGLAN / STREETS / BALLARAT; around, BREAD & BISCUIT BAKER FAMILY GROCER; border of 113 beads.

Reverse Description

At centre a wheat sheaf with the cord holding it 4.7 mm long; around above, ADVANCE AUSTRALIA, around below, 1862. Border of 114 beads. This is a Stokes stock reverse, used for many trade token issuers.

Edge Description


More Information

  • Collection Names

    Alfred Chitty Collection

  • Collecting Areas

    Numismatics & Philately, Working Life & Trades

  • Acquisition Information

    Transfer from National Gallery of Victoria (NGV), Mr Alfred Chitty, 15 Mar 1976

  • Date Issued

    1862 AD

  • Issued By

    J. Taylor, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia, 1862
    Bread & biscuit baker and family grocer in Ballarat.

  • Mint

    Stokes (Mint), Melbourne, Greater Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1862

  • Previous Collection

    Mr Alfred Chitty

  • Inscriptions


  • Denomination

    1 Penny

  • Series

    Trade Tokens

  • Material


  • Axis


  • Classification

    Trade tokens, Australia - victoria, Working strikes

  • Category

    History & Technology

  • Discipline


  • Type of item


  • Dimensions

    34 mm (Outside Diameter), 14.71 g (Weight)

  • Shape


  • References

    Stokes employed three of their stock reverses with the single Taylor obverse to fill the order from Taylor in 1862. This could mean that three different orders for tokens were made. Further, the wheat sheaf reverse occurs with two different die alignments (and perhaps two coinciding weight standards) suggesting a fourth issue. The tokens are scarce among collectors perhaps again suggesting multiple small orders from the firm. Stokes stock reverses were intended to make token manufacture inexpensive to encourage small issuers. J. Sharples 11 Oct 2004.
    [Book] Andrews, Arthur. 1921. Australasian Tokens and Coins., No. 569
    [Book] Heyde, Gilbert C. & Skinner, Dion H. 1967. Unofficial Coins of Colonial Australia and New Zealand., No. 243
    [Article] Sharples, John P. 1993. A Catalogue of the Trade Tokens of Victoria 1848 to 1862. Journal of the Numismatic Association of Australia. vol.7: p.1-77., V. 8

  • Keywords

    Bakers, Grocers