'Little Men' mechanical amusement or advertisement from Cole's Book Arcade. Depicts two 'sailors' operating revolving signs with a double-crank handle. The Little Men are dressed in sailor suits, and originally had dark-coloured caps. They may have been given their white caps bearing the names HMAS Sydney and HMAS Melbourne as a patriotic gesture during World War I - these ships were launched in 1913.

The signs are a mixture of advertising slogans for Cole's Book Arcade and wise maxims which reflect Edward William Cole's belief in human equality, education and justice. The original signs have been lost, but were probably of similar content.

The 'little men' (or 'little sailors') exhibit was made for Edward William Cole, who founded Cole's Book Arcade in 1865. It was made in Melbourne in 1883 by F. Ziegler & Sons, who also made the Gog & Magog in Melbourne's Royal Arcade, the Hawthorn Town Hall clock, the 'tower clock' at Flinders Street Station and many public clocks. They originally powered by running water, and later converted to electricity. The signs have been replaced several times, most recently in 2007, with signs that better represented what Cole might have used - including sayings from his medals and books.

The Little Men appear to have been in use continually from 1883, first at the 158 Bourke Street store of Cole's Book Arcade, then at the main Bourke Street store until 1928, and finally at 255 Swanston Street in a shop operated by Cole's daughter and son-in-law under the same name, from 1929 to 1938. They were donated to Museum Victoria in 1939.

Physical Description

Mechanical exhibit, consisting of a wooden box on which is perched two figures of sailors, each holding a crank handle. When the mechanism rotates, these 'little men' appear to turn the crank handle which rotates a series of hidden cogs, finally rotating a large dum below them onto which 21 double-sided signs are attached. The signs slowly flip over, allowing sufficient time for reading. The men are dressed in black felt sailor suits (jacket and trousers) with blue-trimmed white shirt appearing from underneath and folded over to form a square panel over the shoulders. Each jacket has a rope trim at the front opening. Their caps are white with inscribed bands (see below). The faces of the men are made of a composite material and are painted pink, with blue eyes and features picked out in appropriate colours. Their hands and feet are brass. A door to the left of the signs hinges to allow access to the cog mechanism. The 'Little Men' are housed in a glazed wooden display stand, apparently non-original.


Cole's Book Arcade was one of the great iconic stores of Melbourne in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the 'Little Men' were one of its most iconic objects. The store was crammed with new and second-hand books and other wares, and had the atmosphere of a circus. Cole enticed customers of all ages with a menagerie and fernery, a band, a clockwork symphonion and other mechanical delights. Readers could sit in comfortable chairs, encouraged by a sign: 'Read for as Long as You Like - Nobody Asked to Buy'.

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